Indymedia e' un collettivo di organizzazioni, centri sociali, radio, media, giornalisti, videomaker che offre una copertura degli eventi italiani indipendente dall'informazione istituzionale e commerciale e dalle organizzazioni politiche.
toolbar di navigazione
toolbar di navigazione home | chi siamo · contatti · aiuto · partecipa | pubblica | agenda · forum · newswire · archivi | cerca · traduzioni · xml | classic toolbar di navigazione old style toolbarr di navigazione old style toolbarr di navigazione Versione solo testo toolbar di navigazione
Campagne

autistici /inventati crackdown


IMC Italia
Ultime features in categoria
[biowar] La sindrome di Quirra
[sardegna] Ripensare Indymedia
[lombardia] AgainstTheirPeace
[lombardia] ((( i )))
[lombardia] Sentenza 11 Marzo
[calabria] Processo al Sud Ribelle
[guerreglobali] Raid israeliani su Gaza
[guerreglobali] Barricate e morte a Oaxaca
[roma] Superwalter
[napoli] repressione a Benevento
[piemunt] Rbo cambia sede
[economie] il sangue di roma
Archivio completo delle feature »
toolbarr di navigazione
IMC Locali
Abruzzo
Bologna
Calabria
Genova
Lombardia
Napoli
Nordest
Puglia
Roma
Sardegna
Sicilia
Piemonte
Toscana
Umbria
toolbar di navigazione
Categorie
Antifa
Antimafie
Antipro
Culture
Carcere
Dicono di noi
Diritti digitali
Ecologie
Economie/Lavoro
Guerre globali
Mediascape
Migranti/Cittadinanza
Repressione/Controllo
Saperi/Filosofie
Sex & Gender
Psiche
toolbar di navigazione
Dossier
Sicurezza e privacy in rete
Euskadi: le liberta' negate
Antenna Sicilia: di chi e' l'informazione
Diritti Umani in Pakistan
CPT - Storie di un lager
Antifa - destra romana
Scarceranda
Tecniche di disinformazione
Palestina
Argentina
Karachaganak
La sindrome di Quirra
toolbar di navigazione
Autoproduzioni

Video
Radio
Print
Strumenti

Network

www.indymedia.org

Projects
oceania
print
radio
satellite tv
video

Africa
ambazonia
canarias
estrecho / madiaq
nigeria
south africa

Canada
alberta
hamilton
maritimes
montreal
ontario
ottawa
quebec
thunder bay
vancouver
victoria
windsor
winnipeg

East Asia
japan
manila
qc

Europe
andorra
antwerp
athens
austria
barcelona
belgium
belgrade
bristol
croatia
cyprus
estrecho / madiaq
euskal herria
galiza
germany
hungary
ireland
istanbul
italy
la plana
liege
lille
madrid
nantes
netherlands
nice
norway
oost-vlaanderen
paris
poland
portugal
prague
russia
sweden
switzerland
thessaloniki
united kingdom
west vlaanderen

Latin America
argentina
bolivia
brasil
chiapas
chile
colombia
ecuador
mexico
peru
puerto rico
qollasuyu
rosario
sonora
tijuana
uruguay

Oceania
adelaide
aotearoa
brisbane
jakarta
manila
melbourne
perth
qc
sydney

South Asia
india
mumbai

United States
arizona
arkansas
atlanta
austin
baltimore
boston
buffalo
charlottesville
chicago
cleveland
colorado
danbury, ct
dc
hawaii
houston
idaho
ithaca
la
madison
maine
michigan
milwaukee
minneapolis/st. paul
new hampshire
new jersey
new mexico
new orleans
north carolina
north texas
ny capital
nyc
oklahoma
philadelphia
pittsburgh
portland
richmond
rochester
rogue valley
san diego
san francisco
san francisco bay area
santa cruz, ca
seattle
st louis
tallahassee-red hills
tennessee
urbana-champaign
utah
vermont
western mass

West Asia
beirut
israel
palestine

Process
discussion
fbi/legal updates
indymedia faq
mailing lists
process & imc docs
tech
volunteer
HE STRATEGY OF TENSION: Then and Now.
by Indymedia UK/Germany/Italy Thursday, Jul. 19, 2001 at 5:54 PM mail:

The current climate of bomb-threats and police crack-downs have many similarities to the politcal landscape in 1970's Italy. Below is a discussion of Italy's 'Strategy of Tension'.

As in much of the west, the late 1960's in Italy saw a huge upturn in student movements however there was also a huge upturn in political activism throughout other institutions in the country. In 1969, Factory Councils (consigli di fabbrica) emerged. As a result of these councils the statuto dei lavoratori ("workers' statute" or labour laws) were established. This period also saw the legalisation of divorce, the implementation of regional decentralisation, the recognition of conscientious objection and large numbers of legislative innovations. Such changes were a direct result of the direct action that had been unfolding since 1968.

In around 1973-74, things began to change. The parliamentary left in Italy broke and no longer associated with the newly emerging social institutions and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) actually began to compromise with the right-wing Christian Democrats (known as compromesso storico (or "historic compromise")). The four years from 1974 to 1978 saw a progressive tightening of the alliance between the DC and the PCI, an alliance which extended from government and parliament to the whole system of power, including the trade unions, media and even the police. This was all against the economic environment of Italy's monetary deflation policies and industrial restructuring of Italy's systems of manufacture and production. The "historic compromise" was built around these "austerity policies". Simultaneously and as a direct response to the same austerity measures, Italy's broadbased social struggles were becoming more intense and began to break completely from all institutional representations.

Repression by employers in the factories and by police in the general society increased, including the adoption of a whole series of laws. These changes were seen as a drastic move away from the bounds of democracy and saw the social movement begin to arm itself. One such group, The Red Brigades, emerged amongst workers in the large factories in the north, which had been subjected to savage restructuring. There was, during this time, continuous working-class struggles and manifestations of urban violence. It was at this time that the state (with the assistance of the United States) commenced it's own forms of 'terrorism'.

The 'Strategy of Tension' was first formulated in 1965 at the Instituto Polio (Institution of Italian Military) Congress. The strategy involved two steps. Firstly, the infiltration of left groups with fascists and secondly a campaign of bombings. One of the most famous infiltrators was a 'Nazi-Maoist' called Mario Merlino. In 1969 Merlino infiltrated an anarchist organisation. This group was soon accused of detonating a large bomb in Bologna. This was the
first act of 'Tension'. Merlino was accused of being involved in the bombing, however never convicted.

The use of indiscriminate bombing of the public and the threat of a rightwing coup were used to stabilise centre-right political control of the country. Bombings occurred at demonstrations and public meetings, trains and stations. Other bomings occurred on the 'Italicus' train in
1974 and ended with the last 'officially sanctioned' bombing in Brescia where a bomb was detonated in the Piazza della Loggia. Anarcho-syndacilists were blamed for this bombing. Much of the evidence that could have identified the bombers in this last attack, was destroyed by the police. The 1980 bombing in Bologna, although often identified as the peak of the 'Strategy of Tension' was in fact the work of the Mafia and Fascists. Such actions by the state only escalated the Resistance's desire to fight for the right to self-expression.

Numerous other incidents occurred throughout this period including the 'accidental deaths', 'suicides' and 'disappearances' of numerous left-wing activists.

1977 saw a major escalation of the tension. At the end of a
demonstration, a left-wing militant was killed by the police and rioting broke out. The 'communist' mayor and the government sent armoured cars to sweep away the barricades.

In Milan, Turin, Naples, Padova, Rome and Bologne there were huge marches during which, more and more frequently, armed groups began to appear. Among the working class and the urban proletarian movements, the resistance against restructuring was growing irresistibly, within a climate of massive resentment towards what people saw as betrayal by the official left.

From around 1978 the movement began to collapse. Some would argue that the social movements turned too far from their goals and towards senseless acts of violence, however this must be seen against a background of increasing police repression. The introduction of special police, special
prisons, special courts and trials, and special emergency measures, essentially created a state of emergency.

Many of the laws created during the 'Strategy of Tension' period are still on the books. These include prison sentences of between 3-6 years for distributing political literature and up to seven years in prison to 'prevent' possible dangerous acts. Amnesty International reported torture in Italian prisons in 1981. Today there are still over 200 political prisoners in Italy.

Similar attempts to split the movement and create tension amongst the demonstrators appears to be behind the recent spate of 'bombings'. Add to this the decision to have missiles prepared for the Anti-G8 demonstrations, police intimidation of journalists and protestors, denial of the right to freedom of movement through Europe, the police shots fired in Gothenburg and numerous arrests and we are apparently facing an international 'Strategy of Tension'.

What this shows is that the 'State' (Italian, European and
International) are worried. As we have escalated the tension on them they have started to push back. They know that the 'anti-capitalist' movement is growing and in Genoa they face the might of over 100,000 demonstrators on the streets. This reaction by the Italian government is, in a certain way, a positive sign. It shows that the movement is going forward, is gaining momentum and we need to keep strong in the face of initimidation.

So it is important to focus on the issues, keep a clear head and not to panic. The key task in Genoa and internationally is the discussion of our own strategies, analysis of the current economic and social effects of capitalism and our hopes for the future.

For more information on the Strategy of Tension see:
http://www.ecn.org Site of Italian Centri Sociali
http://www.clarence.com/contents/societa/memoria Banca Dati Della Memoria(Memory Bank/ Archive)
http://www.clarence.com/contents/societa/speciali/010702piazzafontana
http://www.clarence.com/contents/societa/speciali/010702piazzafontana/storia.html La Verita Su Una Strage - Fabrizio Calvi e Frederic Laurent, Mondadori (Book about Piazza Fontana)

versione stampabile | invia ad un amico | aggiungi un commento | apri un dibattito sul forum
Ci sono N_UMVISIBLE commenti visibili (su 1) a questo articolo
Lista degli ultimi 10 commenti, pubblicati in modo anonimo da chi partecipa al newswire di Indymedia italia.
Cliccando su uno di essi si accede alla pagina che li contiene tutti.
Titolo Autore Data
COMRADES CHILL OUT! some @ Sunday, Jan. 11, 2004 at 9:43 AM
©opyright :: Independent Media Center
Tutti i materiali presenti sul sito sono distribuiti sotto Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0.
All content is under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 .
.: Disclaimer :.

Questo sito gira su SF-Active 0.9